NOTE: UPDATE: ZappySys has released a brand new API Connector for SSIS OneDrive which makes it much simpler to integrate OneDrive data inside SSIS and SQL Server compared to the steps listed in this article. You can still use steps from this article but if you are new to API or want to avoid learning curve with API then use newer approach.
Please visit this page to see all Pre-Configured ready to use API connectors which you can use in SSIS API Source / SSIS API Destination OR API ODBC Driver (for non-SSIS Apps such as Excel, Power BI, Informatica).
Here is how you can download a file from OneDrive using SSIS REST API Task
Here is an example path:
On Response Tab
1. Set path.
2. Check Treat response as binary.